The 27-year-old was picked up by police in downtown Manhattan after he was allegedly seen buying drugs.
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Kevin McEnroe and his mother Tatum O'Neal in 2008
"He was arrested at 11.24pm last night for criminal possession of a controlled substance," an NYPD spokesperson confirmed to People.
New York police Sgt. Jessica McRorie told CNN that Kevin was carrying six clear plastic bags of what was believed to be cocaine, as well as an anxiety pill, 20 pain-killing tablets, 10 morphine pills and 10 unidentified orange pills.
John McEnroe and his wife Patty Smyth with Kevin in February 2010
He has been released on bail and is scheduled to appear in court on 16 October.
Kevin's mother Tatum has been fighting a drug addiction since she was just a teenager – she famously lost custody of her three children with John in 1995 while battling her heroin addiction.
John McEnroe and Tatum O'Neal were married from 1986 until 1994
Tatum, 50, and John, 55, are also parents to son Sean and daughter Emily. They were married in 1986 and divorced in 1994.