A courtesy call with King Willem-Alexander, a private viewing of the famous Girl with a Pearl Earring painting, and a visit to a community centre in Rotterdam were all on the cards.
See the Duchess' day out in photos...
Kate was officially welcomed to the country by King Willem-Alexander at his residence Villa Eikenhorst.
The king's wife Queen Maxima was away in her native Argentina, while their three daughters were at school.
Kate and Willem-Alexander sat down for lunch before the Duchess was driven to the centre of The Hague for her next engagement.
Kate, 34, was on top form and looked elegant in a pale blue Catherine Walker suit.
The high-end designer is a favourite with Kate; she most recently wore the label during her royal tour of Canada.
She was greeted by the Mauritshuis museum gallery director Emilie Gordenker, who showed Kate around the permanent collection.
Kate also viewed the temporary exhibition, At Home in Holland: Vermeer and his Contemporaries from the British Royal Collection.
The exhibition features 22 works by Dutch artists from the 17th century.
She was particularly taken by Vermeer's painting, Girl with a Pearl Earring - the museum's most famous artwork.
Kate had accessorised aptly for the visit, borrowing a pair of pearl earrings from the Queen which originally belonged to the Queen Mother.
Prince William's wife, who studied history of art at university, also stopped to admire The Goldfinch by Carel Fabritius.
Before leaving Kate visited the Art Workshop where a group of children were having a painting lesson.
Creative Kate was particularly charmed by one little girl and bent down to talk to her, showing off her maternal side.
Kate then visited the British Ambassador's Residence in The Hague where she took part in a roundtable discussion on the themes of addiction, intervention, family and mental health.
The Duchess is a keen campaigner for mental health, especially in young people and children.
The discussion brought together professionals from the renowned Trimbos Institute of the Netherlands, and two of Kate's UK charities of which she is patron – the Anna Freud Centre for Children and Families and Action on Addiction.
Her last engagement of the day took Kate to the neighbouring city of Rotterdam to visit Bouwkeet, a new creative workshop in an economically deprived district.
Kate got the giggles as Meganoid the robot showed the Duchess his best moves!
Local craftsmen share their skills with children and young people.
Textiles, ceramics, bike mechanics and IT programming are just some of the skills on offer.
Kate bid farewell to her host country, boarding the 7:15pm flight from Rotterdam back to London.
Touching down in the UK, she disembarked first and was whisked off in a private car, while other passengers waited on board the plane.
"Thank you for your hospitality the Netherlands! It was great!" Kensington Palace tweeted.